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约翰·洛克的教育思想(中英对照)-30: 旅行

TRAVEL | The last part usually in education is travel, which is commonly thought to finish the work and complete the gentleman. I confess, travel into foreign countries has great advantages; but the time usually chosen to send young men abroad, is, I think, of all other, that which renders them least capable of reaping those advantages. Those which are proposed, as to the main of them, may be reduced to these two: first, language; secondly, an improvement in wisdom and prudence, by seeing men, and conversing with people of tempers, customs, and ways of living, different from one another, and especially from those of his parish and neighbourhood. But from sixteen to one-and-twenty, which is the ordinary time of travel, men are, of all their lives, the least suited to these improvements. The first season to get foreign languages, and form the tongue to their true accents, I should think, should be from seven to fourteen or sixteen; and then too a tutor with them is useful and necessary, who may with those languages, teach them other things. But to put them out of their parents view, at a great distance, under a governor, when they think themselves too much men to be governed by others, and yet have not prudence and experience enough to govern themselves: what is it but to expose them to all the greatest dangers of their whole life, when they have the least fence and guard against them? Till that boiling boisterous part of life comes on, it may be hoped the tutor may have some authority; neither the stubbornness of age, nor the temptation or examples of others can take him from his tutor's conduct till fifteen or sixteen; but then, when he begins to comfort himself with men, and thinks himself one; when he comes to relish and pride himself in manly vices, and thinks it a shame to be any longer under the control and conduct of another, what can be hoped from even the most careful and discreet governor, when neither he has power to compel, nor his pupil a disposition to be persuaded; but on the contrary, has the advice of warm blood and prevailing fashion, to hearken to the temptations of his companions, just as wise as himself, rather than to the persuasions of his tutor, who is now looked on as an enemy to his freedom? And when is a man so like to miscarry, as when at the same time he is both raw and unruly?  This is the season of all his life that most requires the eye and authority of his parents and friends to govern it. The flexibleness of the former part of a man's age, not yet grown up to be headstrong, makes it more governable and safe; and in the afterpart, reason and foresight begin a little to take place, and mind a man of his safety and improvement. The time therefore I should think the fittest for a young gentleman to be sent abroad, would be, either when he is younger, under a tutor, whom he might be the better for; or when he is some years older, without a governor; when he is of age to govern himself, and make observations of what he finds in other countries worthy his notice, and that might be of use to him after his return; and when too, being throughly acquainted with the laws and fashions, the natural and moral advantages and defects of his own country, he has something to exchange with those abroad, from whose conversation he hoped to reap any knowledge.

旅行 |  教育的最后部分通常是旅行,一般认为,旅行是教育的结束,也是一个绅士的完成。我承认到国外旅行有很大益处;但是我觉得通常送年轻人到国外旅行的时机,是最不可能让他们获得这些益处的。旅行的主要好处可以归结为两种:第一是语言,第二是通过多观察、多接触各种在脾性、习俗及生活方式上彼此不同的人,特别是与自己的教区及邻近地区有区别的人,以增进智慧及持重能力。但是一般年轻人出国旅行是在十六岁到二十一岁之间,那时正是他人生中最难获得这种长进的时候。我认为学习外语,包括学习其正确发音,第一个时机应是从七岁到十四岁或十六岁,那时有导师相伴是有益的、必须的,因为导师可以用那些外语向他传授别的事物。但是当他们以为自己已长大了,不再需要受他人的管束,然而他们的谨慎与经验又不足以管束自己时,让他们在一个监护人的带领之下,远离父母的视线,这岂不是在他们的自卫能力最薄弱之时,将他们完全暴露在人生中遭遇的最大危险面前吗?在生命中热血沸腾的时期来临之前,希望导师还有一些权威;在十五六岁之前,他们既不到固执己见的年龄,也不会因为别人的引诱或榜样而脱离导师的管束;但是当他从成人那里得到慰籍,并觉得自己是成人的时候;当他开始喜欢许多邪恶的事,并以此为傲,觉得再受别人的管束与指导是一种耻辱的时候,那时监护人既缺乏强迫学生的权力,而学生也没有听从他的情绪,相反,他受热血与流行时尚的影响,听从和他一样聪明的伙伴的引诱,不听从导师的规劝,反而视导师为其自由的敌人,即使导师是最仔细、最谨慎的监护人,又能期望导师做些什么呢?当一个人什么时候既无经验又不受管束,同时却又容易误入歧途呢?这个时期是他一生中最需要父母及朋友的看顾与约束的。人生在此之前还很柔和,还没有长大到固执任性,比较容易管束、比较安全;在此之后的时期,理智与远见开始产生,使人能够注意自己的安全与进步。所以我认为,一个年轻绅士出国旅行的最佳时期是在年纪较小,易受导师管束的时候;或是年纪较大,无需导师的时候;那时他到了可以管束自己的年龄,在外国看见值得注意的东西,就会留心观察,当他回国后也许有用;而且他事先彻底地熟悉了本国的法律、风俗及本国天然的、道德上的利弊优劣,他就有材料和国外的人交流,能从与他们的交谈中获得一些知识。

The ordering of travel otherwise, is that, I imagine, which makes so many young gentlemen come back so little improved by it. And if they do bring home with them any knowledge of the places and people they have seen, it is often an admiration of the worst and vainest practices they met with abroad; retaining a relish and memory of those things wherein their liberty took its first swing, rather than of what should make them better and wiser after their return. And indeed how can it be otherwise, going abroad at the age they do under the care of another, who is to provide their necessaries, and make their observations for them? Thus under the shelter and pretence of a governor, thinking themselves excused from standing upon their own legs or being accountable for their own conduct, they very seldom trouble themselves with enquiries or making useful observations of their own. Their thoughts run after play and pleasure, wherein they take it as a lessening to be controlled; but seldom trouble themselves to examine the designs, observe the address, and consider the arts, tempers, and inclinations of men they meet with; that so they may know how to comport themselves towards them. Here he that travels with them is to screen them; get them out when they have run themselves into the briars; and in all their miscarriages be answerable for them.

我认为许多年轻绅士旅行回来后很少进步,原因就在于旅行的顺序安排与此不同。假如他们带回家任何他们所目睹的风土人情的知识,也常常是是对他们在国外所遇到的最糟糕、最无价值的事物的赞赏;保留在他们头脑中的只是对他们首次自由之后所碰到的事物喜爱与记忆,而非那些可使自己返回后变得更聪明、更美好的东西。而且在这种年龄出国旅行,他们尚须别人照顾,由别人替他们预备一切所需之物,替他们去观察,确实除此以外还有别的结果吗?因为有监护人作庇护、作借口,认为自己不必独立、不必替自己的行为承担任何责任,他们很少麻烦自己去亲身对事物进行探究或有益的观察。他们的思想追求的是游戏与快乐,认为这是少被管束的一种表现;他们也很少不辞辛苦地对他们所遇到的人,去考查他们的图谋,观察他们的说辞,思考他们的技能、脾性和爱好;从而知道自己应如何应付他们。这里,陪伴他们旅行的人要庇护他们,一旦他们陷入荆棘丛中,要帮助他们摆脱困境,对于他们的一切不良行为要为其负责。

I confess, the knowledge of men is so great a skill, that it is not to be expected a young man should presently be perfect in it. But yet his going abroad is to little purpose, if travel does not sometimes open his eyes, make him cautious and wary, and accustom him to look beyond the outside, and, under the inoffensive guard of a civil and obliging carriage, keep himself free and safe in his conversation with strangers, and all sorts of people, without forfeiting their good opinion. He that is sent out to travel at the age, and with the thoughts, of a man designing to improve himself, may get into the conversation and acquaintance of persons of condition where he comes: which, though a thing of most advantage to a gentleman that travels; yet I ask, among our young men that go abroad under tutors, What one is there of an hundred, that ever visits any person of quality? Much less makes an acquaintance with such, from whose conversation he may learn what is good breeding in that country, and what is worth observation in it; though from such persons it is, one may learn more in one day, than in a year's rambling from one inn to another. Nor indeed is it to be wondered; for men of worth and parts will not easily admit the familiarity of boys, who yet need the care of a tutor: though a young gentleman and stranger, appearing like a man, and showing a desire to inform himself in the customs, manners, laws, and government of the country he is in, will find welcome assistance and entertainment amongst the best and most knowing persons every-where, who will be ready to receive, encourage, and countenance any ingenious and inquisitive foreigner.

我承认,了解人是一个重要的技巧,不能期望一个年轻人立刻就能完美掌握它。但是假如旅行有时不能开阔他的眼界,不能使他小心谨慎,不能让他习惯看事物不只是看外表,不能使他在礼貌亲切的举止的卫护下,与陌生人以及各种各样的人安全自如地交谈,而又不致失去别人的好评,那么出国旅行就没有什么用处。一个人到了旅行的年纪,有心以此来使自己进步,他就可以与当地上流人士交往和认识,这虽然是一个绅士能从旅行中得到的最大益处;但是我要问,我们那些在导师带领下出国旅行的年轻人中,一百人中有多少个曾经访问过任何杰出的人士?至于和这种人士结识,从与他们的谈话去学习那个国家的良好教养,看其中有什么值得遵行的,那就更谈不上了;虽然从这样一个人那里,一天学到的东西,比一年中从一处漫游到另一处学到的东西还要多。这本是不足为奇的,因为德高望重的人是不轻易与尚须导师照料的孩子认识友好的;而一个年轻的绅士和陌生人,显出成人的样子,愿意了解他所访问国家的风俗、礼仪、法律和政府,他总会到处得到最优秀、最有才识的人的欢迎帮助与款待,他们对于一个聪明好问的外国人总是愿意接待、鼓励和支持的。

This, how true soever it be, will not I fear alter the custom, which has cast the time of travel upon the worst part of a man's life; but for reasons not taken from their improvement. The young lad must not be ventured abroad at eight or ten, for fear of what may happen to the tender child, though he then runs ten times less risk than at sixteen or eighteen. Nor must he stay at home till that dangerous, heady age be over, because he must be back again by one and twenty, to marry and propagate. The father cannot stay any longer for the portion, nor the mother for a new set of babies to play with; and so my young master, whatever comes on it, must have a wife looked out for him by that time he is of age; though it would be no prejudice to his strength, his parts, or his issue, if it were respited for some time, and he had leave to get, in years and knowledge, the start a little of his children, who are often found to tread too near upon the heels of their fathers, to the no great satisfaction either of son or father. But the young gentleman being got within view of matrimony, it is time to leave him to his mistress.

这个道理无论如何真实,我担心它还是不能改变习俗,习俗还是让人在一生中最糟糕的时期去旅行,而并不是为了他们的进步提高的缘故。年轻人不能在八到十岁时冒险出国,因为担心在脆弱的小孩身上发生什么事情,虽然他碰到危险机会比十六到十八岁时小十倍。他也不能呆在家里等这鲁莽危险的年龄过去,因为他必须在二十一岁之前回国,去结婚生子。父亲等不及了要分家产,母亲等不及了要有新的一批婴儿来逗玩;于是我的少主人不管怎样,一到年龄,使得找个太太来照顾他;虽然在年龄与学识方面为其健康、才能或后代着想,他不妨推迟一点开始要小孩,因为小孩常常蹒跚跟在他的脚跟后面,对他或小孩都没有太大好处。但是年轻绅土一旦接近婚姻,就得交给他太太了。

 

摘自Some Thoughts Concerning Education (English-Chinese Edition)(ISBN-10: 1537479857)

 

 


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TRAVEL | The last part usually in education is travel, which is commonly thought to finish the work and complete the gentleman. I confess, travel into foreign countries has great advantages; but the time usually chosen to send young men abroad, is, I think, of all other, that which renders them least capable of reaping those advantages. Those which are proposed, as to the main of them, may be reduced to these two: first, language; secondly, an improvement in wisdom and prudence, by seeing men, and conversing with people of tempers, customs, and ways of living, different from one another, and especially from those of his parish and neighbourhood. But from sixteen to one-and-twenty, which is the ordinary time of travel, men are, of all their lives, the least suited to these improvements. The first season to get foreign languages, and form the tongue to their true accents, I should think, should be from seven to fourteen or sixteen; and then too a tutor with them is useful and necessary, who may with those languages, teach them other things. But to put them out of their parents view, at a great distance, under a governor, when they think themselves too much men to be governed by others, and yet have not prudence and experience enough to govern themselves: what is it but to expose them to all the greatest dangers of their whole life, when they have the least fence and guard against them? Till that boiling boisterous part of life comes on, it may be hoped the tutor may have some authority; neither the stubbornness of age, nor the temptation or examples of others can take him from his tutor's conduct till fifteen or sixteen; but then, when he begins to comfort himself with men, and thinks himself one; when he comes to relish and pride himself in manly vices, and thinks it a shame to be any longer under the control and conduct of another, what can be hoped from even the most careful and discreet governor, when neither he has power to compel, nor his pupil a disposition to be persuaded; but on the contrary, has the advice of warm blood and prevailing fashion, to hearken to the temptations of his companions, just as wise as himself, rather than to the persuasions of his tutor, who is now looked on as an enemy to his freedom? And when is a man so like to miscarry, as when at the same time he is both raw and unruly?  This is the season of all his life that most requires the eye and authority of his parents and friends to govern it. The flexibleness of the former part of a man's age, not yet grown up to be headstrong, makes it more governable and safe; and in the afterpart, reason and foresight begin a little to take place, and mind a man of his safety and improvement. The time therefore I should think the fittest for a young gentleman to be sent abroad, would be, either when he is younger, under a tutor, whom he might be the better for; or when he is some years older, without a governor; when he is of age to govern himself, and make observations of what he finds in other countries worthy his notice, and that might be of use to him after his return; and when too, being throughly acquainted with the laws and fashions, the natural and moral advantages and defects of his own country, he has something to exchange with those abroad, from whose conversation he hoped to reap any knowledge.

旅行 |  教育的最后部分通常是旅行,一般认为,旅行是教育的结束,也是一个绅士的完成。我承认到国外旅行有很大益处;但是我觉得通常送年轻人到国外旅行的时机,是最不可能让他们获得这些益处的。旅行的主要好处可以归结为两种:第一是语言,第二是通过多观察、多接触各种在脾性、习俗及生活方式上彼此不同的人,特别是与自己的教区及邻近地区有区别的人,以增进智慧及持重能力。但是一般年轻人出国旅行是在十六岁到二十一岁之间,那时正是他人生中最难获得这种长进的时候。我认为学习外语,包括学习其正确发音,第一个时机应是从七岁到十四岁或十六岁,那时有导师相伴是有益的、必须的,因为导师可以用那些外语向他传授别的事物。但是当他们以为自己已长大了,不再需要受他人的管束,然而他们的谨慎与经验又不足以管束自己时,让他们在一个监护人的带领之下,远离父母的视线,这岂不是在他们的自卫能力最薄弱之时,将他们完全暴露在人生中遭遇的最大危险面前吗?在生命中热血沸腾的时期来临之前,希望导师还有一些权威;在十五六岁之前,他们既不到固执己见的年龄,也不会因为别人的引诱或榜样而脱离导师的管束;但是当他从成人那里得到慰籍,并觉得自己是成人的时候;当他开始喜欢许多邪恶的事,并以此为傲,觉得再受别人的管束与指导是一种耻辱的时候,那时监护人既缺乏强迫学生的权力,而学生也没有听从他的情绪,相反,他受热血与流行时尚的影响,听从和他一样聪明的伙伴的引诱,不听从导师的规劝,反而视导师为其自由的敌人,即使导师是最仔细、最谨慎的监护人,又能期望导师做些什么呢?当一个人什么时候既无经验又不受管束,同时却又容易误入歧途呢?这个时期是他一生中最需要父母及朋友的看顾与约束的。人生在此之前还很柔和,还没有长大到固执任性,比较容易管束、比较安全;在此之后的时期,理智与远见开始产生,使人能够注意自己的安全与进步。所以我认为,一个年轻绅士出国旅行的最佳时期是在年纪较小,易受导师管束的时候;或是年纪较大,无需导师的时候;那时他到了可以管束自己的年龄,在外国看见值得注意的东西,就会留心观察,当他回国后也许有用;而且他事先彻底地熟悉了本国的法律、风俗及本国天然的、道德上的利弊优劣,他就有材料和国外的人交流,能从与他们的交谈中获得一些知识。

The ordering of travel otherwise, is that, I imagine, which makes so many young gentlemen come back so little improved by it. And if they do bring home with them any knowledge of the places and people they have seen, it is often an admiration of the worst and vainest practices they met with abroad; retaining a relish and memory of those things wherein their liberty took its first swing, rather than of what should make them better and wiser after their return. And indeed how can it be otherwise, going abroad at the age they do under the care of another, who is to provide their necessaries, and make their observations for them? Thus under the shelter and pretence of a governor, thinking themselves excused from standing upon their own legs or being accountable for their own conduct, they very seldom trouble themselves with enquiries or making useful observations of their own. Their thoughts run after play and pleasure, wherein they take it as a lessening to be controlled; but seldom trouble themselves to examine the designs, observe the address, and consider the arts, tempers, and inclinations of men they meet with; that so they may know how to comport themselves towards them. Here he that travels with them is to screen them; get them out when they have run themselves into the briars; and in all their miscarriages be answerable for them.

我认为许多年轻绅士旅行回来后很少进步,原因就在于旅行的顺序安排与此不同。假如他们带回家任何他们所目睹的风土人情的知识,也常常是是对他们在国外所遇到的最糟糕、最无价值的事物的赞赏;保留在他们头脑中的只是对他们首次自由之后所碰到的事物喜爱与记忆,而非那些可使自己返回后变得更聪明、更美好的东西。而且在这种年龄出国旅行,他们尚须别人照顾,由别人替他们预备一切所需之物,替他们去观察,确实除此以外还有别的结果吗?因为有监护人作庇护、作借口,认为自己不必独立、不必替自己的行为承担任何责任,他们很少麻烦自己去亲身对事物进行探究或有益的观察。他们的思想追求的是游戏与快乐,认为这是少被管束的一种表现;他们也很少不辞辛苦地对他们所遇到的人,去考查他们的图谋,观察他们的说辞,思考他们的技能、脾性和爱好;从而知道自己应如何应付他们。这里,陪伴他们旅行的人要庇护他们,一旦他们陷入荆棘丛中,要帮助他们摆脱困境,对于他们的一切不良行为要为其负责。

I confess, the knowledge of men is so great a skill, that it is not to be expected a young man should presently be perfect in it. But yet his going abroad is to little purpose, if travel does not sometimes open his eyes, make him cautious and wary, and accustom him to look beyond the outside, and, under the inoffensive guard of a civil and obliging carriage, keep himself free and safe in his conversation with strangers, and all sorts of people, without forfeiting their good opinion. He that is sent out to travel at the age, and with the thoughts, of a man designing to improve himself, may get into the conversation and acquaintance of persons of condition where he comes: which, though a thing of most advantage to a gentleman that travels; yet I ask, among our young men that go abroad under tutors, What one is there of an hundred, that ever visits any person of quality? Much less makes an acquaintance with such, from whose conversation he may learn what is good breeding in that country, and what is worth observation in it; though from such persons it is, one may learn more in one day, than in a year's rambling from one inn to another. Nor indeed is it to be wondered; for men of worth and parts will not easily admit the familiarity of boys, who yet need the care of a tutor: though a young gentleman and stranger, appearing like a man, and showing a desire to inform himself in the customs, manners, laws, and government of the country he is in, will find welcome assistance and entertainment amongst the best and most knowing persons every-where, who will be ready to receive, encourage, and countenance any ingenious and inquisitive foreigner.

我承认,了解人是一个重要的技巧,不能期望一个年轻人立刻就能完美掌握它。但是假如旅行有时不能开阔他的眼界,不能使他小心谨慎,不能让他习惯看事物不只是看外表,不能使他在礼貌亲切的举止的卫护下,与陌生人以及各种各样的人安全自如地交谈,而又不致失去别人的好评,那么出国旅行就没有什么用处。一个人到了旅行的年纪,有心以此来使自己进步,他就可以与当地上流人士交往和认识,这虽然是一个绅士能从旅行中得到的最大益处;但是我要问,我们那些在导师带领下出国旅行的年轻人中,一百人中有多少个曾经访问过任何杰出的人士?至于和这种人士结识,从与他们的谈话去学习那个国家的良好教养,看其中有什么值得遵行的,那就更谈不上了;虽然从这样一个人那里,一天学到的东西,比一年中从一处漫游到另一处学到的东西还要多。这本是不足为奇的,因为德高望重的人是不轻易与尚须导师照料的孩子认识友好的;而一个年轻的绅士和陌生人,显出成人的样子,愿意了解他所访问国家的风俗、礼仪、法律和政府,他总会到处得到最优秀、最有才识的人的欢迎帮助与款待,他们对于一个聪明好问的外国人总是愿意接待、鼓励和支持的。

This, how true soever it be, will not I fear alter the custom, which has cast the time of travel upon the worst part of a man's life; but for reasons not taken from their improvement. The young lad must not be ventured abroad at eight or ten, for fear of what may happen to the tender child, though he then runs ten times less risk than at sixteen or eighteen. Nor must he stay at home till that dangerous, heady age be over, because he must be back again by one and twenty, to marry and propagate. The father cannot stay any longer for the portion, nor the mother for a new set of babies to play with; and so my young master, whatever comes on it, must have a wife looked out for him by that time he is of age; though it would be no prejudice to his strength, his parts, or his issue, if it were respited for some time, and he had leave to get, in years and knowledge, the start a little of his children, who are often found to tread too near upon the heels of their fathers, to the no great satisfaction either of son or father. But the young gentleman being got within view of matrimony, it is time to leave him to his mistress.

这个道理无论如何真实,我担心它还是不能改变习俗,习俗还是让人在一生中最糟糕的时期去旅行,而并不是为了他们的进步提高的缘故。年轻人不能在八到十岁时冒险出国,因为担心在脆弱的小孩身上发生什么事情,虽然他碰到危险机会比十六到十八岁时小十倍。他也不能呆在家里等这鲁莽危险的年龄过去,因为他必须在二十一岁之前回国,去结婚生子。父亲等不及了要分家产,母亲等不及了要有新的一批婴儿来逗玩;于是我的少主人不管怎样,一到年龄,使得找个太太来照顾他;虽然在年龄与学识方面为其健康、才能或后代着想,他不妨推迟一点开始要小孩,因为小孩常常蹒跚跟在他的脚跟后面,对他或小孩都没有太大好处。但是年轻绅土一旦接近婚姻,就得交给他太太了。

 

摘自Some Thoughts Concerning Education (English-Chinese Edition)(ISBN-10: 1537479857)

 

 


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